Good oral hygiene and regular visits to the dentist will help us to maintain healthy teeth and gums. Here are some tips to help look after our teeth:-

  1. Brush at least twice a day: The best time to brush teeth is after meals. Choose a toothbrush with a small head for better access to back teeth. Soft bristles are kinder on your gums.
  2. Use fluoridated toothpaste: Fluoride helps to harden tooth enamel and reduces your risk of decay.
  3. Brush thoroughly: Tooth brushing should take between two and three minutes.
  4. Floss your teeth daily: Use a slow and gentle sawing motion.
  5. Limit acidic drinks like soft drinks, cordials and fruit juices: Food acids soften tooth material and dissolve the minerals in tooth enamel, causing holes. In severe cases, teeth may be ‘eaten’ right down to the gum.
  6. Limit sugary foods: Bacteria in dental plaque change sugars into acids.
  7. Protect your teeth from injury: Wear a mouth guard or full face helmet when playing sports.
  8. Try to save a knocked out tooth: Wrap it in plastic or place it in milk and seek dental advice immediately. It may be possible to put the tooth back.
  9. Avoid using your teeth for anything other than chewing food: If you use them to crack nuts, remove bottle tops or rip open packaging, you risk chipping or even breaking your teeth.
  10. See your dentist for regular checkups: You should also visit your dentist if you have a dental problem such as a toothache or bleeding gums.

Proper Dental Care

The effects of poor dental care range from tooth decay and cavities to gingivitis, periodontists, and tooth loss. Fortunately, proper dental care, including cleaning teeth correctly and regularly, can prevent most of these problems.

If we don’t clean our teeth well every day, we’re putting ourselves at risk for tooth decay. Early signs of decay include visible holes in our teeth, pain when we bite and feelings of sensitivity or pain in our teeth.

When the carbohydrates in the food and drinks that we consume aren’t cleaned from the teeth regularly, they provide fuel for cavity causing bacteria. These bacteria can start forming plaque on teeth within 20 minutes of eating and we clean our teeth more often than twice a day. The truth is, bacteria are almost always present in the mouth, and frequent cleaning and limiting sugary foods that may help prevent decay. Cleaning teeth also helps prevent cavity causing bacteria from progressing to gingivitis, or gum disease.

A Recommended Dental Care Routine

Keep our teeth clean and cavity free by following a regular dental care routine of twice daily tooth brushing and daily flossing. Visit the dentist and dental hygienist at least once a year for a professional cleaning and assessment to catch any problems before they become serious. The dentist or dental hygienist might also recommend a particular type of toothbrush, dental floss or oral rinse to help us get the most daily dental care routine.

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What is SARS?

SARS stands for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. It is a contagious disease that is caused by the SARS Coronavirus and typically leads to a potentially fatal form of pneumonia.

SARS is caused by a “Coronaviruses”.

Human coronaviruses were first identified in the mid of 1960s. They known as “coronaviruses” because of their crown like projections on their surfaces. Coronaviruses cause respiratory infections in humans and animals. Coronaviruses affect the upper respiratory tract primarily of birds and mammals and they may also affect the gastrointestinal tract.

SARS symptoms usually start like those of the common cold, and gradually become more flu. Signs and symptoms may include:-

    • Extreme fatigue which is tiredness
    • Massive headache
    • Fever which above 38 °C
    • Lethargy
    • Confusion
    • Rash
    • Loss of appetite
    • Pain in the muscles or body aches
    • Diarrhea

From 3 to 7 days after exposure, respiratory symptoms develop as infection spreads to the airways and lungs, and may include:

  • Dry cough
  • Runny nose
  • Sore throat
  • Breathing problems
  • Gradual fall in blood and oxygen levels
  • Nearly all patients eventually develop pneumonia after about 7 days

Treatment for SARS?

As SARS is a viral disease, antibiotics are not effective. The SARS patients needs to be isolated, and if possible in a negative pressure room, which prevents cross contamination from room to room. Nurses should take barrier precaution for any necessary contact with patients. People must take a good precautions and wear a mask for avoiding from the disease.

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What is skin?

The skin is the largest organ of the body. It covers the internal organs and protects them from injury, serves as a barrier to germs such as bacteria, and helps prevent fluid loss. The skin helps control body temperature and gets rid of certain body wastes. Cells in the skin communicate with the brain and allow temperature, touch, and pain sensations.

What are the risk factors for skin cancer?

Risk factors for non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers include:-

  • Unprotected or excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation (sunlight or tanning booths).
  • Pale skin (easily sunburned, doesn’t tan much or at all, natural red or blond hair).
  • Occupational exposures to coal tar, pitch, creosote, arsenic compounds, or radium.
  • You or other members of your family have had skin cancers.
  • Multiple or unusual moles.
  • Severe sunburns in the past.

What are the signs and symptoms of skin cancer?

Skin cancer can be found early, and both doctors and patients play important roles in finding skin cancer. If you have any of the following symptoms, tell your doctor.

  • Any change on your skin, especially in the size or color of a mole, growth, or spot, or a new growth.
  • Scaliness, oozing, bleeding, or a change in the way a bump or nodule looks.
  • The spread of pigmentation beyond its border, such as dark coloring that spreads past the edge of a mole or mark.
  • A change in sensation, such as itchiness, tenderness, or pain.

Can skin cancer be prevented?

The best ways to lower the risk of skin cancer are to avoid long exposure to intense sunlight and practice sun safety. You can still exercise and enjoy the outdoors while using sun safety at the same time. Here are some ways to be sun safe:-

  • Seek shade, especially in the middle of the day when the sun’s rays are strongest.
  • Slip on a shirt: Cover up with protective clothing to guard as much skin as possible when you are out in the sun. Choose comfortable clothes made of tightly woven fabrics that you cannot see through when held up to a light.
  • Slop on sunscreen: Use sunscreen and lip balm with broad spectrum protection and a sun protection factor (SPF) of 30 or higher. Apply a generous amount of sunscreen to unprotected skin at least 30 minutes before outdoor activities. Reapply every 2 hours and after swimming, toweling dry, or sweating. Use sunscreen even on hazy or overcast days.
  • Slap on a hat: Cover your head with a wide brimmed hat, shading your face, ears, and neck. If you choose a baseball cap, remember to protect your ears and neck with sunscreen.
  • Wrap on sunglasses: Wear sunglasses with 100% UVA and UVB absorption to provide optimal protection for the eyes and the surrounding skin.
  • Sunscreen doesn’t protect from all UV rays, so don’t use sunscreen as a way to stay out in the sun longer.
  • Follow these practices to protect your skin even on cloudy or overcast days. UV rays travel through clouds.
  • Avoid other sources of UV light. Tanning beds and sun lamps are dangerous. They also damage your skin.
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Cardiovascular disease also called as heart disease which includes numerous problems. It also related to a process called atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a condition that develops when a substance called plaque builds up in the walls of the arteries. This buildup narrows the arteries, making it harder for blood to flow through. If a blood clot forms, it can stop the blood flow. This can cause a heart attack or stroke.

A heart attack occurs when the blood flow to a part of the heart is blocked by a blood clot. If this clot cuts off the blood flow completely, the part of the heart muscle supplied by that artery begins to die. Most people survive their first heart attack and return to their normal lives to enjoy many more years of productive activity. But having a heart attack does mean you have to make some changes. The doctor will advise you to take a good medications lifestyles changes according to how badly the heart was damaged and what degree of heart disease caused the heart attack.

How To Prevent Heart Disease?

  • To stabilize blood pressure and cholesterol levels and to keep your weight in check, try to eat more fruits, vegetables, and grains and fewer foods that are salty, high in fat, or fried.
  • Exercise regularly (at least three to four times a week for 30 minutes at a time) in order to tone your heart and blood vessels and to shed excess pounds.
  • Drink alcohol in moderation.
  • Don’t smoke.
  • Learn to control stress rather than letting it control you.
  • If you feel you are at risk, ask your doctor about taking an aspirin a day to prevent heart attack.
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Menstrual cramps also known as “dysmenorrhea” or period pains are painful sensations felt in the lower abdomen that can occur both before and during a woman’s menstrual period. The pain ranges from dull and annoying to severe and extreme. Menstrual cramps tend to begin after an egg is released from the ovaries and travels down the Fallopian tube. There are two primary types of these difficult or painful periods which are primary and secondary dysmenorrhea:-

  1. Primary dysmenorrhea is the most common type and is characterized by pain in the lower abdomen and lower back pain beginning 1 or 2 days before the period and lasting from 2 to 4 days. There is no underlying problem that is causing the pain.
  2. Secondary dysmenorrhea is characterized by cramping pains that are due to an identifiable medical problem such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids and many more.

Who gets menstrual cramps?

About half of women experience menstrual cramps, and about 15% describe the pain as severe. It has been shown that women who do not exercise experience more painful menstrual cramps. Certain psychological factors such as emotional stress may also increase the likelihood of having uncomfortable menstrual cramps. Additional risk factors for these cramps include:-

  • Being younger than 20 years of age.
  • Starting puberty at age 11 or younger.
  • Menorrhagia which is heavy bleeding during periods.
  • Never having delivered a baby.

What causes menstrual cramps?

During each menstrual period, if there is no sperm to fertilize the egg, the uterus contracts to expel its lining. This process is driven by the release of hormone like substances called prostaglandins, which are associated with pain and inflammation in higher levels. These uterine contractions cause much of the pain felt during menstrual cramps because the contractions inhibit blood flow to the lining of the uterus. In addition, substances known as leukotrienes are also elevated during menstruation, and they may be a cause of menstrual cramps.

How can menstrual cramps be prevented?

We may be able to prevent menstrual cramps. Recommended preventive measures include:-

  1. Eating fruits and vegetables and limiting intake of fat, alcohol, caffeine, salt, and sweets.
  2. Exercising regularly.
  3. Reducing stress.
  4. Quit smoking.
  5. Yoga or relaxation therapy.
  6. Acupuncture or acupressure.
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Parkinson’s disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system that affects our movement. It develops gradually, sometimes starting with a barely noticeable tremor in just one hand. But while tremor may be the most well known sign of Parkinson’s disease, the disorder also commonly causes stiffness or slowing of movement.

In early stages of Parkinson’s disease, your face may show little or no expression, or your arms may not swing when you walk. Your speech may become soft or slurred. Parkinson’s disease symptoms worsen as your condition progresses over time. Although Parkinson’s disease can’t be cured, medications may markedly improve your symptoms. In occasional cases, your doctor may suggest surgery to regulate certain regions of your brain and improve your symptoms.

Parkinson’s disease symptoms and signs may vary from person to person. Early signs may be mild and may go unnoticed. Symptoms often begin on one side of your body and usually remain worse on that side, even after symptoms begin to affect both sides.

Parkinson’s signs and symptoms may include:-

  • Tremor. Your tremor, or shaking, usually begins in your limb, often your hand or fingers. You may notice a back and forth rubbing of your thumb and forefinger, known as a pill-rolling tremor. One characteristic of Parkinson’s disease is tremor of your hand when it is relaxed.
  • Slowed movement (bradykinesia). Over time, Parkinson’s disease may reduce your ability to move and slow your movement. This may make simple tasks difficult and time consuming. Your steps may become shorter when you walk, or you may find it difficult to get out of a chair. Also, your feet may stick to the floor as you try to walk, making it difficult to move.
  • Rigid muscles. Muscle stiffness may occur in any parts of your body. The stiff muscles can limit your range of motion and cause you pain.
  • Impaired posture and balance. Your posture may have become stooped, or you may have balance problems as a result of Parkinson’s disease.
  • Loss of automatic movements. In Parkinson’s disease, you may have a decreased ability to perform unconscious movements, including blinking, smiling or swinging your arms when you walk. You may no longer gesture when talking.
  • Speech changes. You often may have speech problems as a result of Parkinson’s disease. You may speak softly, quickly, slur or hesitate before talking. Your speech may be more of a monotone, rather than with the usual inflections.
  • Writing changes. Writing may appear small and become difficult.

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Caused of Hair Loss

There are many different causes of hair loss. It is not always clear why men and women suffer hair loss and it may not be due to a single factor. Thinning of the hair, a receding hair line and loss of patches of hair can be caused by many different factors. The most common causes of premature loss of hair are detailed below:

  • Genetic predisposition
  • Emotional and physical stress
  • Vitamin deficiencies
  • Thyroid problems
  • Medication, chemotherapy and radiotherapy
  • Menopause and hormonal changes
  • Autoimmune disorders
  • Skin disorders
  • Infections and parasites
  • Diabetes
  • Old age

Some types of hair loss may resume growth without any treatment. Moreover, treatments may help promote hair growth or hide hair loss. Five natural tips to prevent hair loss:-

1. Hot oil treatments: Take any natural oil such as olive, coconut, and canola which heat it up so that it is warm, but not too hot. Massage it gently into your scalp. Put on a shower cap and leave it on for an hour, then shampoo your hair.

2. Natural juices: You can rub your scalp with either garlic juice, onion juice or ginger juice. Leave it on overnight and wash it thoroughly in the morning.

3. Get a head massage: Massaging your scalp for a few minutes daily will help stimulate circulation. Good circulation in the scalp keeps hair follicles active. Circulation may be improved through massage by using a few drops of lavender or bay essential oil in an almond or sesame oil base.

4. Antioxidants: Apply warm green tea on your scalp and leave this mixture on for an hour and then rinse. Green tea contains antioxidants which prevent hair loss and boost hair growth.

5. Practice meditation: Believe it or not, most of the times, the root cause for hair loss is stress and tension. Meditation can help in reducing that and restore hormonal balance.



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